Via en post ovre hos kollega Hodja blev jeg opmærksom på en krigsfilm, som udspiller sig i moro området på den filippinske ø Mindanao og Sulu øerne. Hodjas take på historien er myten om, at Amerikanerne begravede muhammedanske terrorister indpakket i svineskind.
Det er en myte og forskellige kommandørere tilskrives den. Et eksempel her, hvor myten også afdækkes:
Once in US history an episode of Islamic terrorism was very quickly stopped. It happened in the Philippines about 1911, when Gen. John J. Pershing was in command of the garrison. There had been numerous Islamic terrorist attacks, so “Black Jack” told his boys to catch the perps and teach them a lesson.
Forced to dig their own graves, the terrorists were all tied to posts, execution style. The US soldiers then brought in pigs and slaughtered them, rubbing their bullets in the blood and fat. Thus, the terrorists were terrorized; they saw that they would be contaminated with hogs’ blood. This would mean that they could not enter Heaven, even if they died as terrorist martyrs.
All but one was shot, their bodies dumped into the grave, and the hog guts dumped atop the bodies. The lone survivor was allowed to escape back to the terrorist camp and tell his brethren what happened to the others. This brought a stop to terrorism in the Philippines for the next 50 years.
Snopes næver også forbindelsen til The Glory.
Klippet med svineskinds scenen:
Snopes skriver om filmens læge, Bill Canavan.
In the 1939 film The Real Glory, Gary Cooper portrays Dr. Bill Canavan, an American Army doctor in 1906 Manila who “tries to protect the native population from ruthless invaders” (i.e., “Muslim fanatics”). At one point in the film, the Dr. Canavan character drapes a captured Muslim in a pigskin and proclaims that henceforth all slain Muslim rebels will be buried in pig skins, thereby discouraging their “savagery” by threatening to prevent their entry into paradise. And, of course, the above-cited anecdote about General Pershing’s handling of terrorists in the Philippines has circulated widely on the Internet ever since 9/11 even made the rounds at the top levels of U.S. government:
Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Bob Graham (D-Fla.) cited as an example a dinner he attended last week with people who work on intelligence issues and have connections to the intelligence community.
One of the earliest and comparatively more reliable books written about the Muslims in the Philippines is The History of Sulu by Dr. Najeeb M. Saleeby, a christian Arab from Souk el Gharb, Lebanon, who came to the Philippines in 1900 as an American Volunteer and who, in later years, became an active participant in the American administration of the Philippines in various important positions.
In 1906, Alipang (Tetsu Komai) and his Muslim Moro guerrillas are terrorizing the people of the Philippine island of Mindanao, raiding villages, killing the men, and carrying off the women and children for slaves. Instead of maintaining garrisons indefinitely to protect the Filipinos, the U.S. army tests out a new tactic at Fort Mysang. The army detachment is replaced by a handful of officers – Colonel Hatch (Roy Gordon), Captains Manning (Russell Hicks) and Hartley (Reginald Owen), and Lieutenants McCool (David Niven) and Larsen (Broderick Crawford) – who are to train the native Philippine Constabulary to take over the burden. Army doctor Lieutenant Canavan (Gary Cooper) is sent along to keep them healthy. They are welcomed by a skeptical Padre Rafael (Charles Waldron).
Alipang starts sending fanatical juramentados to assassinate the officers and goad them into attacking before the natives are fully trained. Hatch is the first victim, leaving Manning to take command. Manning’s wife (Kay Johnson) and Hartley’s daughter Linda (Andrea Leeds) arrive for a visit at the worst possible time; a horrified Mrs. Manning witnesses her husband’s murder. Hartley takes charge, but Canavan disagrees with his by-the-book, overly-cautious approach. Disobeying orders, Canavan sets out for Alipang’s camp guided by Miguel (Benny Inocencio), a young Moro boy he has befriended. “Mike” (as Canavan calls him) infiltrates the camp and learns that Alipang has sent another assassin, this time for Hartley. Canavan and Mike intercept the man and take him back a prisoner.
Linda and Canavan fall in love, much to the disappointment of McCool and Larsen. When Hartley insists she leave Mysang with Mrs. Manning, she refuses and helps out at the hospital.
Alipang then dams the river on which the villagers depend. Hartley refuses to send a detachment into the jungle to blow it up (he is concealing the fact that he is slowly going blind from an old head wound). The people have to rely on an old well, but the contaminated water causes a cholera epidemic. Finally, Hartley has no choice but to send Larsen and some men to destroy the dam. They do not return.
The Datu (Vladimir Sokoloff), a supposedly friendly Moro leader, offers to guide Hartley and his men to the dam, but he is actually leading them into an ambush. Canavan learns of the Datu’s treachery from Mike, the sole survivor of Larsen’s detachment, and races to warn Hartley. Canavan forces the Datu to take him to the dam. The Datu is killed in a booby trap, but Canavan manages to dynamite the dam anyway. Then, he and the men raft back to the village, which is under attack by Alipang’s men.
McCool is killed leading the defense, but Canavan and the rest return in time to turn the tide. Alipang is killed by Filipino Lieutenant Yabo (Rudy Robles). Their mission accomplished, the Hartleys and Canavan depart, leaving the village in Yabo’s care.
Den del af plottet, der går på at det meste af garnisonen dør er ikke i overenstemmelse med historiske fakta, og skal måske tilskrives en propaganda vinkel som man har ønsket med WWII i horisonten. Og Colonel Hatch figuren er snare modelleret over Tasker H. Bliss end Joesph “Black Jack” Pershing. De Amerikanske tab på Mindanao under denne indsats var små, Philippine Constabulary en smule højer, og Moroerns massive pga af deres sucidiale måde, at lave oprør på.
Og så må vi vidst heller se filmen:
Det viser sig, at filmens manuskript forfatter, Charles L. Clifford er selvstændigt interesant. CLC var et pesudonym for Gerald V. (Victor) Hurley (1898 – 1978). Han var en intet mindre end en rigtig helt og åbenbart en skribent som bl.a. var indstillet til Pulitzer prisen. I modsætning til såkaldte kulturpersonligheder, såsom Carsten Jensen (modtager af Oluf Kvalme prisen, opkaldt efter en eller ande svensk statsminister) og Jacob Holdt (modtager af statens hvile legat) og berygtet for at lyve sine historier frem, så vidste Hurley faktisk hvad han skrev om. Udover det, så var han sportsmand i eliteklasse, gjorde han tjeneste i den Amerikanske hær i WWI, hvor han som artellerist deltog bl.a. ved Verdun og Belleau. Sidenhen var han officer i Philippine Constabulary og under WWII deltog han som efterretningsofficer i Stillehavskrigen med fokus på Filippinerne. Foruden filmen ovenfor, så var der en forløber, Army Girl. Begge film er baseret på de ti år, hvor Hurley boede på Filippinerne, fra cirka 1925 til 1935, og som han beskrev i nogle bøger. Fra wiki posten om ham:
Hurley was born in St. Joseph, Missouri on October 6, 1898. He grew up and graduated from high school in the remote Eastern Washington community of Davenport and was introduced to the broader world through his Army service in World War I. He enlisted in the Army in 1916 and saw action with one of the first field artillery units sent overseas. He and his unit were engaged in every major battle of the war including Verdun and Belleau Wood. He suffered a lifelong chronic illness resulting from a mustard gas attack.
At the University of Washington, on his return from service in the early 1920s, he became a track star, setting records, some of which were not broken until 1984. He competed against Charley Paddock, the American Olympic star, in the early 1920s. Hurley was an All-American track star, placing fifth in the 1921 NCAA championships in the 100-yard dash. His record at UW was finally bested by Phil Shinnick after 42 years. In 1923 he was recruited by the Illinois Athletic Club for their track team and was employed by American Express in Chicago for two years.
In 1925 he traveled to the Philippine Islands, earning passage as a stoker on a steamship. He and a partner began a coconut plantation in the jungle interior of Mindanao Island in 1926. His partner soon abandoned him and left him, a solitary white man, in the jungle, to pursue this enterprise which after a year failed. When he recovered his health he stayed in Zamboanga for another seven years as an expatriate manager for American companies. While there he married. During that time he became an honorary Third Lieutenant in the Philippine Constabulary, the Philippine national police force. Hurley and his wife returned to the U.S. in 1935.
On the recommendation of a college friend, Max Miller—the author of I Cover the Waterfront (1933), Hurley recounted his plantation adventure and its failure in Southeast of Zamboanga, (1935) . Subsequently he described his life as an American expatriate in the tiny occidental enclave in Zamboanga, Men in Sun Helmets (1936), his experience with the native Islamic Filipinos, the Moros, and their history in Swish of the Kris (1938), and the genesis and history of the Philippine Constabulary in Jungle Patrol . All of Hurley’s Philippine books were published by E. P. Dutton.
From 1935 until the early 1940s he was a prolific author under his own name and under several pseudonyms. During this time he also was a radio personality and the writer for other radio programs. In the late 1930s he wrote the stories or screenplays for two produced movies, Army Girl and The Real Glory, which was based loosely on his Philippine books, under the pen name of Charles L. Clifford.
During World War II Hurley was a Navy officer attached to the Pacific theatre as an expert on the Philippines and Southeast Asia and wrote instruction booklets for the U.S. invading forces together with assault plans. In 1960 his novel The Parthian was released, which was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.
The Washington State University received, from Hurley, his research and drafts of the books The Parthian and Missiles of Victory, later retitled Arrows Against Steel (1975) in 1961 and 1962. They are collected in the Vic Hurley Archives. In 1967, 1976, and 1978 he donated his collection of Philippine artifacts and photographs to the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum at the University of Washington. They are archived in the Vic and Betty Hurley Collection. He gave the Washington State History Museum in Tacoma, Washington his collection of World War I military paraphernalia, World War I original photographs, magazine articles, and copies of his books The Parthian and Men in Sun Helmets. Also included is a file of his wife’s personal correspondence. This material is archived in the Vic and Betty Hurley Collections. The University of Oregon Libraries’ Special Collections and University Archives holds two linear feet of G. Victor Hurley papers: book-length manuscripts including Blades In the Sun, The Coronado Island Adventures, Jungle Patrol, Men in Sun Helmets, and The Three Bachelors; articles and short stories, miscellaneous items, memorabilia, and correspondence.
In 1978 he took his own life, having been predeceased by his wife and having no issue.
Guide til hans arkiv her.
Hans bøger er genudgivet af familien, kan købes bl.a. her.